He-Umezu Agreement

Chiang Kai-shek was then unwilling to go to war with Japan, while his forces were still linked in a campaign to eradicate the Chinese Communist Party, and agreed to abide by it. The agreement was reached between General Yoshijirō Umezu, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Arms for Japan, and He Yingqin for China. [1] Two secret clauses excluded all anti-Japanese volunteer armies from this peacekeeping corps and ensured that any disputes that could not be resolved by the Peace Preservation Corps were settled by an agreement between the Japanese and Chinese authorities. After losing all commitment and considerable territory and the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek was more busy fighting the Chinese Communist Party than the Japanese, the Chinese government accepted all the demands. In addition, the new demilitarized zone was largely in the remaining territory of Zhang Xueliang, a discredited Mandong warlord. [2] An Allied agreement at the Canta Conference in February 1945 made the situation even more complicated, which brought Soviet troops to Manchuria to accelerate the end of the war against Japan. Although the Chinese were not present in Kanta, they had been consulted; they had accepted that the Soviets would go to war, believing that the Soviet Union would only deal with the nationalist government. After the war, the Soviet Union dismantled and removed more than half of the industrial equipment that the Japanese had left there as part of the Von Yalta Agreement, which allowed for a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria. No regular Kuomintang military units could be allowed in the demilitarized zone, although the Japanese were allowed to use reconnaissance aircraft or ground patrols to ensure compliance with the agreement. Public order within the area should be maintained by a lightly armed peace preservation corps.

The agreement gave Japan de facto control of Hebei Province under the aegis of the Eastern Hebei Autonomous Council. [2] Although the deal was reached in secret, its details were quickly leaked to the press, causing a rise in outrage and anti-Japanese atmosphere in China. . . .